Unlike mutual funds, exchange traded fund shares are bought and sold at market value, which can be greater or lower than their NAV, and aren’t individually redeemed from the fund. The fund usually expects to effect its creations and redemptions for money rather than in-kind securities, and should recognize extra capital features and be less tax efficient than if it had been to redeem in-kind. There can be no assurance that an lively commerce market might be maintained, and buying and selling may be halted because of market conditions. A portion of the yield spread reflects the bid–offer value of buying or selling a particular bond versus a authorities security, a liquidity premium that varies based mostly on market situations. Active managers of spread-based fixed-income portfolios take positions in credit and different risk elements that change from these of an index to generate extra return versus passive index replication. Financial analysts who construct on their foundational information by mastering these extra superior fixed-income ideas and instruments will broaden their profession alternatives in the funding trade.